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Bogduk N. Clinical anatomy of the lumbar spine. 1997; 3rd Ed. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh

Gracevetsky S, Farfan H, Helleur C. The abdominal mechanism. 1985; Spine 10: 317-324.

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Kamali N. Evaluation of total and semental lumbar lordosis using radiographic interpretation. 2003; Babol Quarterly Journal Volum 5 , Number 3:

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Hides JA, Richardson CA & Jull GA. Multifidus recovery is not automatic following resolution of acute  first episode low back pain. 1996;Spine

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Wilke, H.-J., Wolf, S., Claes, L. E., Arand, M., Wiesend, A. Stability increase of the lumbar spine with different muscle groups.- A biomechanicaJ in vitro study. 1995 Spine 20, 192-198.


Cavanaugh, Kallakuri, and Ozaktay. Lumbar facet pain:biomechanics, neuroanatomy and neurophysiology.  1996;J Biomech 29: 1117-1129

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Wilke H-J, Neef P,  Caimi M, Hoogland T,  Lutz E.  New In Vivo Measurements of Pressures in the Intervertebral Disc in Daily Life1999; SPINE Volume 24: 755–762

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Aaras, A, Horgen, G., and Ro, O. (2000) Work with Visual Display Unit: Health consequences. International J Human-Computer Interaction. 12(1) 107-134.

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Gorman JD. The cause of Lumbar Back Pain; Eversley, England, Gorman, 1983. Ibid pp 95-106