References

References are in 2 parts

  1. An alphabetic list from the ‘Sitting Safely’ blog.  Near complete.
  2. References arranged in their individual posts.  These include some that are not included in the main list.  
  3. Clicking on the heading connects to the relevant post if unique. 

 

  1. Abitbol, M M. Evolution of the lumbo-sacral angle. American J Phys Anthropol. 1987; 72(3): 361-,372
  2. Adams, Michael A. PhD*; Roughley, Peter J. PhD. What is Intervertebral Disc Degeneration, and What Causes It? Spine:2006  Volume 31 Issue 18:2151-2161
  3. Adams A, Bogduk N, Burton, Dolan P. The Biomechanics of back Pain. 2002; Churchill Livingstone:67-69. (also p. 125)
  4.  Adams MA, Hutton WC. Stott JR. The resistance to flexion of the lumbar intervertebral joint. 1980; Spine 5: 245-253.
  5. Adams MA, Bogduk N, Burton, Dolan P. The Biomechanics of back Pain. 2002; Churchill Livingstone: p95
  6. Adams MA, Hutton WC. The effect of posture on the role of the apophysial joints in resisting intervertebral compressive forces. 1980; J Bone Joint Surg (Br) 62: 358-362.
  7.  Adams MA, Hutton WC. The effect of posture on the fluid content of lumbar intervertebral discs. 1983;Spine 8:665-671
  8.  Adams M, McNally D, Chinn H et al. Posture and compressive strength of the lumbar spine. 1994; Clin biomech 9:5-14
  9. Adams MA. Mechanical testing of the spine. An appraisal of methodology. 1995;Spine 20(19):2151–6.
  10. Adams MA, May S, Freeman BJ, Morrison HP, Dolan P. Effects of backward bending on lumbar intervertebral discs. Relevance to physical therapy treatments for low back pain. 2000b, Spine;25(4):431–7 (discussion 438).
  11.  Akerblom B. Standing and sitting posture. With special reference to the construction of chairs. 1948; Nordiska Bokhande, Stockholmln
  12. Althoff I, Brinckmann P, Frobin W, Sandover J, Burton K. An improved method of stature measurement for quantitative determination of spinal loading. Application to sitting postures and whole body vibration. 1992 Spine;17(6):68293.
  13. Andersson GBJ. The epidemiology of spinal disorders. 1997; In:Frymoyer JW (Ed) The adult spine: principles and practice. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia:93-141.
  14. Aaras, A, Horgen, G., and Ro, O.  Work with Visual Display Unit: Health consequences. 2000;.International J Human-Computer Interaction. 12(1) 107-134
  15. Battie MC, Videman T, Gibbons LE, Fisher LD, Manninen H, Gill K. Determinants of lumbar disc degeneration. A study relating lifetime exposures and magnetic resonance imaging findings in identical twins. 1995,Spine ;20(24):2601–12.
  16.  Been E, Barash A, Marom A, Kramer PA. Vertebral Bodies or Discs Which Contributes More to Human-like Lumbar Lordosis?  Clin Orthop Relat Res DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1153-7
  17.  Beggs C B et al. Air ionisation and colonisation/infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter species in an intensive care unit.  2005:Intensive Care Med (2005)DOI 10.1007/s00134-005-0002-8
  18. Bendix, T. (1994) Low back pain and seating. In: Lueder, R., and Noro, K. (Eds.) Hard Facts about Soft Machines: The ergonomics of seating. Philadelphia: Taylor and Francis, 147-156.
  19. Bogduk N, Macintosh JE. The applied anatomy of the thoracolumbar fascia. 1984; Spine 9: 164-170.
  20.  Bogduk N, Macintosh JE, Pearcy MJ. A universal model of the lumbar back muscles in the standing position. 1992; Spine 17: 897-913
  21.  Bogduk N. Clinical anatomy of the lumbar spine. 1997; 3rd Ed. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh
  22.  Bruggerman B. Kooke HJ, Guys R. Rugklachten Natuur en cultuur. II.Fysio 2000;1994;4:14-19
  23. Cassidy DC, Yong-Hing K, Kirkaldy-Willis WH, Wilkinson AA. Effects of Bipedalism and upright posture on the Lumbosacral spine and paravertebral muscles of the Wistar Rat. Spine 1968;13:301-308.
  24. Cavanaugh, Kallakuri, and Ozaktay. Lumbar facet pain:biomechanics, neuroanatomy and neurophysiology.  1996;J Biomech 29: 1117-1129
  25. Claus A,  Hides J, Lorimer Moseley G. , Hodges P.Sitting versus standing: Does the intradiscal pressure cause disc degeneration or low back pain? 2008;JElectromyography Kinesiology 18:550–558
  26. Corlett, E. N. & Bishop, R. P. (1976) A technique for measuring postural discomfort.Ergonomics, 9, 175-182.
  27. Crisco JJ, Panjabi MM. Euler stability of the human ligamentous lumbar spine. Part II: experiment. 1992 Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon);7(1):27–32.
  28. Cyriax JH. Lumbago. Mechanism of dural pain. Lancet 1945: 427-429. & Cyriax JH .Textbook of Orthopaedic Medicine ,Vol1. 3d Ed. Bailliere Tindall, London,  1971. p362-5.
  29. Cyriax JH. Rheumatism and soft tissue injuries. 1947;Hamish Hamilton Medical Books.p 181
  30. De Looze, M.P., Kuijt-Evers, L.F.M., Van Dieën, J.H., 2003. Sitting comfort and discomfort and the relationships with objective measures. Ergonomics 46, 985997.
  31. Dolan P, Adams MA, Hutton WC.  Commonly Adopted Postures and their Effect on the Lumbar Spine. Spine 1988; 13:2:197-201.
  32. Duncan, J., and Ferguson, D. Keyboard Operating Posture and Symptoms in Operating.  1974 Ergonomics;17(5):651-662.
  33. Fahrni WH, Truman GE Comparative radiological study of the spines of primitive population with North Americans and North Europeans. 1965;  J Bone Joint Surg (Br) 47B: 552-555,
  34. Farfan HF et al. The effects of torsion on the lumbar intervertebral joints: The role of torsion in the production of disc degeneration. J Bone Joint Surg. 1970;52A:468-497. (Produces similar damage to the annulus as that found in early disc degeneration.)
  35. Furlan AD, Clarke J, Esmail R. A critical review of reviews on the treatment of chronic low back pain. 2001;Spine;26:E155-F162
  36. Gracevetsky S, Farfan H, Helleur C. The abdominal mechanism. 1985; Spine 10: 317-324.
  37. Granata KP. Marras WS. Cost-benefit of muscle cocontraction against protecting against spinal instability. 2000;
  38. Gordon, C.C., et al., Anthropometric Survey of U.S. Army Personnel: Summary Statistics Interim Report, 1988 pp.38, 73,132,
  39. Gorman JD. The cause of Lumbar Back Pain; Eversley, England, Gorman, 1983. Ibid pp 95-106
  40. Gorman JD. 2010. personal communication.
  41. Hansraj KK. Assessment of Stresses in the Cervical Spine Caused by Posture and Position of the Head. 2014;Surg Technology Int 24,
  42. Harrison DD, et al. Elliptical modeling of the sagittal lumbar lordosis and segmental rotation angles as a method to discriminate between normal and low back pain subjects. 1998; J Spinal Disord 11:430 –9.
  43. Herman Miller Workplace Performance Study (September 2003).
  44. Heylings DJA. Supraspinous and interspinous ligaments of the human lumbar spine. 1978; JAnat125:127-131.
  45. Hides JA, Richardson CA & Jull GA. Multifidus recovery is not automatic following resolution of acute  first episode low back pain. 1996;Spine
  46. Hides JA, Stokes MD, Saide M, Jull GA, Cooper ID. Evidence of lumbar multifidus muscle wasting ipselateral to symptoms in patients with acute/subacute low back pain. 1994; Spine;19.165-
  47. Hirsh C, Paulson S, Sylven B, Snellman O. Biophysical and physiological investigations on cartilage and other mesenchymal tissues: Characteristics of human nuclei pulposi during aging. 1952. Acta Orthop Scand;22:175– 83.
  48. Hunting, W., Laubli, T. and Grandjean, E.  Postural and visual loads at VDT workplaces: Constrained postures. 1981;Ergonomics. 24 (12), 917-931.
  49. Jackson RP The facet syndrome myth or reality? 1992;Clin Orthop;279:110-21.
  50. Jackson RP. McManus AC.Radiographic analysis of sagittal plane alignment & balance in standing volunteers and patients with low back pain matched for age, sex and size.   A prospective controlled clinical study. 1994;Spine 19:1611-1618
  51. Jenkins A.(BT),Jukes J.(WESTRA). Laws J.(Ionovate).  The Impact of Improved Air Quality on Productivity and Health in the Workplace. 2006:The Healthy Building Conference, Lisbon
  52. Johansson H et al. A sensory role for the cruciate ligaments. 1991;Clinical orthopaedic and related research.268.161-178.
  53. Johanson DC, Edey MA. Lucy: The beginnings of Humankind. Granada, 1981, p 271
  54. Jonck LM, van Niekerk JM, A roentgenological study of the motion of the lumbar spine of the Bantu. 1961 ;South African J Lab Clin Med 2: 67-71
  55. Kamali N. Evaluation of total and semental lumbar lordosis using radiographic interpretation. 2003; Babol Quarterly Journal Volum 5 , Number 3:
  56. Kee, D., Lee, I., Relationships between subjective and objective measures in assessing postural stresses. Applied Ergonomics,
  57. Keegan, J.J.  Alterations of the lumbar curve related to posture and seating, J Bone and Joint Surgery. 35A (3), 589-603.
  58.  Kraemer J. Natural course and prognosis of intervertebral disc disease.  Presidential address to The International Society for the study of the Lumbar Spine.  1995;Spine;20 6:635
  59.  Kuslich SD, Ulstrom CL, Michael C. The tissue origin of low back pain and sciatica: a report of a pain response to tissue stimulation during operations on the lumbar spine using local anesthesia. 1991; Orthop ClinNorth Am 22: 181-187.
  60. Lievseth G, Drerup B. Spinal shrinkage during work in a sitting posture compared to work in a standing posture. 1997 Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon;12(7/8):409–18.
  61.  Lovejoy CO. A reconstruction of the pelvis of A.L.-288-1.  Am J Phys Anthropol  1979;50:413.
  62. Lovejoy CO. The natural history of human gait and posture Part 1. Spine and pelvis. Gait and Posture. 2005;21:95-112
  63. Linton SJ, van Tulder MWPreventive interventions for back and neck pain problems: what is the evidence?   2001 Spine  1;26(7):778-87.
  64. Lordkipanidze D, Vekua A, Ferring R, Rightmire GP, Agusti J, Kiladze G, Mouskhelishvili A, Nioradze M, Ponce de Leo ́n M, Tappen M, Zollikofer C. 2005. The earliest toothless hominin skull. Nature 434:717–718.
  65. Lueder R. Anatomical, physiological and health Considerations relevant to the SwingSeat. 2002; Ergonomics Review.
  66. Makhsous M, Lin F, Hendrix RW, Hepler M, Zhang LQ. Sitting with adjustable ischial and back supports: biomechanical changes. Spine 2003;28(11):1113–21 (discussion 1121–1112).
  67. Mandal. AC., The Seated Man (Homo sedens). 1985. Dafnia Publications, p72
  68. McGill SM, van Wijk MJ, Axler CT, Gletsu M. Studies of spinal shrinkage to evaluate low-back loading in the workplace. 1996  Ergonomics;39(1):92–102.
  69. McNally DS, Adams MA, Goodship AE. Can intervertebral disc prolapse be predicted by disc mechanics?. 1993 Spine;18(11): 1525–30.
  70. Mixter WJ, Barr JS, Rupture of the intervertebral disc with involvement of the spinal canal.  1934; N Eng J Med; 211:210
  71. Moes, N.C.C.M., 2005. Analysis of sitting discomfort, a review. In: Bust, P.D.,McCabe, P.T., Contemporary Ergonomics 2005. Taylor & Francis, London, pp. 200204.
  72. Molleson T. The eloquent Bones of Abu Hureyra. Scientific American. 1994;8:60-65
  73. Nakatsukasa M. Acquisition of bipedalism: the Miocene hominoid record and modern analogues for bipedal protohominids. 2004; J. Anat. 204:385–402
  74. Natarajan RN, Williams JR, Andersson GBJ. Recent advances in analytical modeling of lumbar disc degeneration. 2004 Spine ;29(23):2733–41.
  75. Nachemson A. Morris JM. In vivo measurements of intradiscal pressure. 1964; J Bone Joint Surg (Am);46:1077.
  76. O’Hara BP, Urban JP, Maroudas A. Influence of cyclical loading on the nutrition of articular cartilage. 1990;Ann Rheum Dis 49: 536-539
  77. Oxford, H.W., “Anthropometric Data for Educational Chairs,” Ergonomics, 12:12 (1969), pp.140-161.
  78. Papageorgiou AC, Croft PR, Ferry S, et al. Estimating the prevalence of low back pain in the general population: evidence from the South Manchester Back Pain Survey. Spine. 1995;20(17):1889–1894.
  79. Pearcy MJ, Portek I, Shepherd J. Three dimensional X-ray analysis of normal movement in the lumbar spine 1984;
  80. Spine 9: 294-297
  81. Pheasant, S.T., “Anthropometry and the Design of Workspaces,” Eds. J.R. Wilson and E.N. Corlett, Evaluation of Human Work: A Practical Ergonomics Methodology (Taylor & Francis, London, 1990), p.463.   458,459
  82.  Prince S. A., C. M. Blanchard, S. L. Grace, R. D. Reid. Objectively-measured sedentary time and its association with markers of cardiometabolic health and fitness among cardiac rehabilitation graduates. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 2015; DOI: 10.1177/2047487315617101
  83. Ramsay RH. The anatomy of the ligament flava. Clin. Orthop. 1966; 44: 129-40.
  84. Reynolds et al, Spatial Geometry of the Human Pelvis, 1982 Memorandum Report Acc-119-81-5, Federal Aviation Administration, Civil Aeromedical Institute.
  85. Rissanen PM. The surgical anatomy and pathology of the supraspinous and interspinous ligaments of the lumbar spine with special reference to ligament ruptures. 1960 ;  Acta Ortho Scandinavica (suppl) 46: 1-99.
  86. Rohlmann A, Claes LE, Bergmannt G, Graichen F, Neef P, Wilke HJ. Comparison of intradiscal pressures and spinal fixator loads fordifferent body positions and exercises.     2001Ergonomics;44(8):781–94.
  87. Rowley-Conwy, P.. From Genesis to Prehistory. The archaeological Three Age System and its contested reception in Denmark, Britain and Ireland. 2007 Oxford: Oxford University Press
  88. Saal JA & Saal JS.   Nonoperative treatment of herniated lumbar intervertebral discs with radiculopathy. An outcome study. 1989;Spine:14,431-437.
  89. Sato, K., Kikuchi, S., and Yonezawa, T. In vivo intradiscal pressure measurement in healthy individuals and in patients with ongoing back problems. 1999; Spine, 24(23):2468- 2474.
  90. Schlemper RJ, Kromhout D, Verbout AJ. The relationship between low back pain and postural habits in Dutch and Japanese female populations. 1987; Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 131: 2405-9
  91. Schmorl G, Junghanns H. The Human Spine in health and disease. 1971 2nd Am Ed. Tr EF Besemann. NY & London, Grune & Stratton, (Radial clefts were considered relevant to the formation of disc prolapse.)
  92. Schoberth, H.  Correct Sitting at the Workplace. 1978 Frankfurt, Germany: University of Frankfurt, Ostsee Clinic.
  93. Schultz A, Andersson G, Ortengren R, Haderspeck K, Nachemson A. Loads in the lumbar spine – validation of a biomechanical analysis bymeasurements of intradiscal pressures and myoelectric signals. 1982.J BoneJoint Surg [Am] ;64(5):713–20.
  94. Schwarzer AC, Aprill CN, and Bogduk N. The sacroiliac joint in chronic low back pain.1995; Spine 20:31-37.
  95. Slijper EJ.  Biologic-anatomical Investigations on the Bipedal Gait and Upright Posture in Mammals, with special Reference to a Little Goat, born without Forelegs. 1942; Institute of Veterinary Anatomy of the State University, Utrecht, Holland (meeting).
  96. Smith FW et al. The Response of the Nucleus Pulposus of the Lumbar Intervertebral Discs to Functionally Loaded Positions. 2007;SPINE Volume 32, Number 14, pp 1508 –1512
  97. Smith F W. et al. The Response of the Nucleus Pulposus of the Lumbar Intervertebral Discs to Functionally Loaded Positions. 2007;SPINE Volume 32, Number 14, pp 1508 –1512
  98. Solomonov M.Zhou BH,Baratta RV. Biomechanics of increased exposure to lumbar injury caused by cyclic loading; Part 1. Loss of reflexive muscular stabilisation.1999;Spine 24:2426-2434
  99. Spector TD et al.  Genetic influences  on cervical and lumbar disc degeneration: a magnetic resonance imaging study in twins.  Arthritis Rheum 1999;42:366-372.
  100. Stern JT, Susman RL. The locomotor anatomy of Australopithecus afarensis. Am J Phys Anthropol 1983;60:279-317.
  101. Takeoka H., S. Yamada, and K. Nora, “Participatory Ergonomics for Seating—Need for User- Oriented Approach,” Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 35th Annual Meeting, 2. 1991; pp.939-943.
  102. Togue RG, Lovejoy CO. The obstetric pelvis of A.L 288-1 (Lucy).  J Human Evolution 1986.;15:237-255
  103. van Deursen LL, van Deursen DL, Snijders CJ, Wilke HJ. Relationship between everyday activities and spinal shrinkage. 2005; Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 20(5):547–50.
  104. Vernon-Roberts B, Pirie CJ. Degenerative changes in the intervertebral discs of the lumbar spine and their sequelae. Rheumat Rehab 1977;16:13-21.                      (Describes the microscopical characteristics of the peripheral ‘rim’ lesions and radial clefts in a series of 300 autopsy subjects.  They concluded that trauma was likely to be their cause and that they preceded degenerative changes.)
  105. Weingarden DS. Accurate assessment of range of movement in low back pain. 1991;JOrthop Med;13:2 (from Back Pain Monitor , 1986)
  106. Vink P. Applied Ergonomics. journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/apergo
  107. Vink P. Ergonomics 43 & 46, 985997.
  108. Wilke HJ et al. Stability increase of the lumbar spine with different muscle groups. An biomechanical in vitro study. 1995; Spine,20:192-198.
  109. Wilke, H.-J., Wolf, S., Claes, L. E., Arand, M., Wiesend, A. Stability increase of the lumbar spine with different muscle groups.- A biomechanicaJ in vitro study. 1995 Spine 20, 192-198.
  110. Wilke H.-J,  Neef P, Hinz B, Seidel H, Claes L.  Intradiscal pressure together with anthropometric data ± a data set for the validation of model. 2001 Clinical Biomechanics 16 Suppl; 1: 111-126
  111. Wilke H-J, Neef P,  Caimi M, Hoogland T,  Lutz E.  New In Vivo Measurements of Pressures in the Intervertebral Disc in Daily Life. 1999; SPINE 24, pp 755–762
  112. Wilke et al. A novel approach to determine trunk muscle forces during flexion and extension: A comparison of data from an in vitro experiment and in vivo measurements. 2003;Spine, 28(23):2585-2593.
  113. Wood, P.H.N., and McLeish, C.L.  Statistical appendix: Digest of data on the rheumatic diseases: 5. Morbidity in industry and rheumatism in general practice. 1974;Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 33, 93-105.
  114. Yoshizawa H, O’Brien JP, Smith WT, Trumper M. The neuropathology of intervertebral discs removed for low back pain 1980; J Pathol 132: 95-104.
  115. Young D. R. , K. Reynolds, M. Sidell, S. Brar, N. R. Ghai, B. Sternfeld, S. J. Jacobsen, J. M. Slezak, B. Caan, V. P. Quinn. Effects of Physical Activity and Sedentary Time on the Risk of Heart Failure. Circulation: Heart Failure, 2014; 7 (1): 21 DOI: 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.113.000529
  116.    Zander T, Krishnakanth P Bergmann    G,  Rohlmann.A.    Diurnal variations in intervertebral disc height affect spine flexibility, intradiscal pressure and contact compressive forces in the facet joints. 2010 Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering;13, 5 :551-557Published online: 15 Sep 2010

 

 

EXTRAS. REFERENCES INCLUDED IN THEIR POSTS.

PREVALENCE & INCIDENCE

2 Waddell G et al. Occupational Guidelines for the Management of Low back Pain at work. 2000 Faculty of Occupational Medicine of the Royal College of Physicians of London.

3 Croft PR et al. Outcome of low back pain in general practice: a prospective study. 1998; BMJ 316: 1356-9.

4 Croft PR, Papageorgiou AC, Thomas E et al. Short term physical risk factors  for new episodes of low back pain.  Prospective evidence from the South Manchester Back Pain Study. 1999; Spine 24: 1556-1561.

5 Johanning E. Evaluation and management of occupational low back disorders.AmJInd Med 2000;37:94 –111.

6 Spector TD et alGenetic influences  on cervical and lumbar disc degeneration: a magnetic resonance imaging study in twins.  Arthritis Rheum 1999;42:366-372.

9 Adams MA, Bogduk N, Burton, Dolan P. The Biomechanics of back Pain. 2002; Churchill Livingstone: p.88-9, 2002-3

7 Hemingway H, Shipley MJ, Stansfield S. et al. Sickness absence from back pain, psychosocial work characteristics and employment grade among office workers. 1997; Scand J Work Environ Health 23: 121-9.

10 Bernard BP.  M.D., M.P.H. A Critical Review of Epidemiologic Evidence for Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Neck, Upper Extremity, and Low Back. 1997;NIOSH. Musculoskeletal Disorders and Workplace Factors.p.6-34 – 6-38.

11 Papageorgiou AC, Croft PR, Ferry S, et al. Estimating the prevalence of low back pain in the general population: evidence from the South Manchester Back Pain Survey. Spine. 1995;20(17):1889–1894.

13 Linton SJ, van Tulder MWPreventive interventions for back and neck pain problems: what is the evidence?   2001 Spine  1;26(7):778-87.

14 Williams MM, Hawley JA, McKenzie RA et al. A comparison of the effect of two sitting posture on back and referred pain. Spine 1991;16:1185–91.

156 Lis AM, Association between sitting and occupational LBP. 2007; Eur Spine J.  16(2): 283–298.

115 Fahrni WH, Truman GE Comparative radiological study of the spines of primitive population with North Americans and North Europeans. 1965;  J Bone Joint Surg (Br) 47B: 552-555,

   155 Kelsey JL, Hardy AJ Driving of motor vehicles as a risk factor for acute herniated lumbar inter-vertebral disc. Amer J Epidemiol 102: 63-73, 1975

15 Biering-Sorensen F, Thompsen, C.  Medical, social and occupational history as risk indicators for low-back trouble in a general population. 1986; Spine 11: 720-725,

154 J. Mark Porter.Seating Design.  Current Problems and Future Strategies.   Automotive Interiors International. :6 -19.  199?

137 Smith, FW. et al. The Response of the Nucleus Pulposus of the Lumbar Intervertebral Disc to Functionally Loaded Positions. 2007;Spine Volume 14. p 1508-1512

157 Lings S, Leboeuf-Yde C. Whole body vibration and low back pain: a systematic, critical review of the epidemiological literature 1992–1999.  2000; Int Arch Occup Environ Health.;73:290–297.

Epidemiological studies (Brattberg 2004,  Gordon 2004,  David 2007,  Jones 2005,  Murphy 2007, Sjolie 2002,  Watson 2003,  Wedderkopp 2005) of  incidence and prevalence fail to identify sitting as a cause of LBP. The emphasis is on exercise and psycho-social factors.  Seating is ignored.   Possibly it’s universality makes it invisible to statistical analysis.

 

BASIC ANATOMY

17 Mixter WJ, Barr JS, Rupture of the intervertebral disc with involvement of the spinal canal.  1934; N Eng J Med; 211:210

18 Cyriax JHLumbago. Mechanism of dural pain. Lancet 1945: 427-429. & Cyriax JH .Textbook of Orthopaedic Medicine ,Vol1. 3d Ed. Bailliere Tindall, London,  1971. p362-5.

 

IV DISC

19 Hirsh C, Paulson S, Sylven B, Snellman O. Biophysical and physiological investigations on cartilage and other mesenchymal tissues: Characteristics of human nuclei pulposi during aging. 1952. Acta Orthop Scand;22:175– 83

20 Adams A, Bogduk N, Burton, Dolan P. The Biomechanics of back Pain. 2002; Churchill Livingstone:67-69. (also p. 125)

21 Adams, Michael A. PhD*; Roughley, Peter J. PhD. What is Intervertebral Disc Degeneration, and What Causes It? 2006;Spine: Volume 31 – Issue 18 – pp 2151-2161

22 Kraemer J. Natural course and prognosis of intervertebral disc disease. Presidential address to The International Society for the study of the Lumbar Spine. 1995;Spine;20 6:635

23 Andersson GBJ. The epidemiology of spinal disorders. 1997; In:Frymoyer JW (Ed) The adult spine: principles and practice. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia:93-141.

24 Adams A, Bogduk N, Burton, Dolan P. The Biomechanics of back Pain. 2002; Churchill Livingstone:125

25 Hides JA, Richardson CA & Jull GA. Multifidus recovery is not automatic following resolution of acute first episode low back pain. 1996;Spine

26 Schmorl G, Junghanns H. The Human Spine in health and disease. 1971 2nd Am Ed. Tr EF Besemann. NY & London, Grune & Stratton,

27 Vernon-Roberts B, Pirie CJ. Degenerative changes in the intervertebral discs of the lumbar spine and their sequelae. Rheumat Rehab 1977;16:13-21. (Describes the microscopical characteristics of the peripheral ‘rim’ lesions and radial clefts in a series of 300 autopsy subjects. They concluded that trauma was likely to be their cause and that they preceded degenerative changes.)

28 Farfan HF et al. The effects of torsion on the lumbar intervertebral joints: The role of torsion in the production of disc degeneration. J Bone Joint Surg. 1970;52A:468-497. (Produces similar damage to the annulus as that found in early disc degeneration.)

 

LIGAMENTS

32 Nachemson A. Towards a better understanding of low back pain: A review of the mechanics of the lumbar spine. Rheumat Rehabil 1975; 14:129-143.

41 Gorman JD. The cause of Lumbar Back Pain; Eversley, England, Gorman, 1983. Ibid pp 95-106

46 Rissanen PM. The surgical anatomy and pathology of the supraspinous and interspinous ligaments of the lumbar spine with special reference to ligament ruptures. 1960 ;  Acta Ortho Scandinavica (suppl) 46: 1-99.

52 Adams MA, Hutton WC. Stott JR. The resistance to flexion of the lumbar intervertebral joint. 1980; Spine 5: 245-253.

49 Bogduk N, Macintosh JE. The applied anatomy of the thoracolumbar fascia. 1984;Spine 9: 164-170,

48 Adams MA, Bogduk N, Burton, Dolan P. The Biomechanics of back Pain. 2002; Churchill Livingstone: p95

Hackett GS. Ligament and Tendon Relaxation Treated by Prolotherapy. 1958 3rd Ed. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C Thomas. pp1-151.

50 Heylings DJA. Supraspinous and interspinous ligaments of the human lumbar spine. 1978; JAnat125:127-131.

51  Ramsay RH. The anatomy of the ligament flava. Clin. Orthop. 1966; 44: 129-40

2 Adams MA, Hutton WC. Stott JR. The resistance to flexion of the lumbar intervertebral joint. 1980; Spine 5: 245-253.

56 Kuslich SD, Ulstrom CL, Michael C. The tissue origin of low back pain and sciatica: a report of a pain response to tissue stimulation during operations on the lumbar spine using local anesthesia. 1991; Orthop ClinNorth Am 22: 181-187.

53 Adams MA, Hutton WC. The effect of posture on the role of the apophysial joints in resisting intervertebral compressive forces. 1980; J Bone Joint Surg (Br) 62: 358-362.

57  Gracevetsky S, Farfan H, Helleur C, The abdominal mechanism.Spine. 1985;10: 317-24.

Solomonow M,  Zhou B.-H,  Baratta R.V,  Burger E. Biomechanics and electromyography of a cumulative lumbar disorder: response to static flexion. 2003; Clin Biomech 18:890-898

NERVE SUPPLY

43 Yoshizawa H, O’Brien JP, Smith WT, Trumper M. The neuropathology of intervertebral discs removed for low back pain 1980; J Pathol 132: 95-1054

Kuslich SD, Ulstrom CL, Michael C. The tissue origin of low back pain and sciatica: a report of a pain response to tissue stimulation during operations on the lumbar spine using local anesthesia. 1991; Orthop ClinNorth Am 22: 181-187.67

Bogduk N. Clinical anatomy of the lumbar spine. 1997; 3rd Ed. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh

Crisco JJ, Panjabi MM. Euler stability of the human ligamentous lumbar spine. Part II: experiment. 1992 Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon);7(1):27–32.

MUSCLES  

16 Bogduk N, Macintosh JE. The applied anatomy of the thoracolumbar fascia. 1984; Spine 9: 164-170.

32 Bogduk N, Macintosh JE, Pearcy MJ. A universal model of the lumbar back muscles in the standing position. 1992; Spine 17: 897-913

34 Bogduk N. Clinical anatomy of the lumbar spine. 1997; 3rd Ed. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh

35 Gracevetsky S, Farfan H, Helleur C. The abdominal mechanism. 1985; Spine 10: 317-324.

36 Granata KP. Marras WS. Cost-benefit of muscle cocontraction against protecting against spinal instability. 2000;

37 Kamali N. Evaluation of total and semental lumbar lordosis using radiographic interpretation. 2003; Babol Quarterly Journal Volum 5 , Number 3:

38 Hides JA, Stokes MD, Saide M, Jull GA, Cooper ID. Evidence of lumbar multifidus muscle wasting ipselateral to symptoms in patients with acute/subacute low back pain. 1994; Spine;19.165-

39 Hides JA, Richardson CA & Jull GA. Multifidus recovery is not automatic following resolution of acute  first episode low back pain. 1996;Spine

40 Johansson H et al. A sensory role for the cruciate ligaments. 1991;Clinical orthopaedic and related research.268.161-178.

41 Saal JA & Saal JS.   Nonoperative treatment of herniated lumbar intervertebral discs with radiculopathy. An outcome study. 1989;Spine:14,431-437.

71 Wilke, H.-J., Wolf, S., Claes, L. E., Arand, M., Wiesend, A. Stability increase of the lumbar spine with different muscle groups.- A biomechanicaJ in vitro study. 1995 Spine 20, 192-198.

LS JUNCTION & LORDOSIS

79 Harrison DD, et al. Elliptical modeling of the sagittal lumbar lordosis and segmental rotation angles as a method to discriminate between normal and low back pain subjects. 1998; J Spinal Disord 11:430 –9.

18 Cyriax JH. Lumbago. Mechanism of dural pain. Lancet 1945: 427-429. 78 Cyriax JH. Rheumatism and soft tissue injuries. 1947;Hamish Hamilton Medical Books.p 181

107 Francis W. Smith et al. The Response of the Nucleus Pulposus of the Lumbar Intervertebral Discs to Functionally Loaded Positions. 2007;SPINE Volume 32, Number 14, pp 1508 –1512

103 Pearcy MJ, Portek I, Shepherd J. Three dimensional X-ray analysis of normal movement in the lumbar spine 1984; Spine 9: 294-297.

41 Gorman JD. The cause of Lumbar Back Pain; Eversley, England, Gorman, 1983. Ibid pp 95-10

LOADING 

PALEO

80 Rowley-Conway, P.. From Genesis to Prehistory. The archaeological Three Age System and its contested reception in Denmark, Britain and Ireland. 2007 Oxford: Oxford University Press

81 Molleson T. The eloquent Bones of Abu Hureyra. Scientific American. 1994;8:60-65

88 Lordkipanidze D, Vekua A, Ferring R, Rightmire GP, Agusti J, Kiladze G, Mouskhelishvili A, Nioradze M, Ponce de Leo ́n M, Tappen M, Zollikofer C. 2005. The earliest toothless hominin skull. Nature 434:717–718.

89 Stringer, C.B. The spread of Man. In D. Williams (ed.), In: Book of Life . Marshall Cavendish : London , 1970:2344-2348

92 Nakatsukasa M. Acquisition of bipedalism: the Miocene hominoid record and modern analogues for bipedal protohominids. 2004; J. Anat. 204:385–402

93 Slijper EJ.  Biologic-anatomical Investigations on the Bipedal Gait and Upright Posture in Mammals, with special Reference to a Little Goat, born without Forelegs. 1942; Institute of Veterinary Anatomy of the State University, Utrecht, Holland (meeting).

94 Cassidy DC, Yong-Hing K, Kirkaldy-Willis WH, Wilkinson AA. Effects of Bipedalism and upright posture on the Lumbosacral spine and paravertebral muscles of the Wistar Rat. Spine 1968;13:301-308.

84 Lovejoy CO. A reconstruction of the pelvis of A.L.-288-1.  Am J Phys Anthropol  1979;50:413.

85 Togue RG, Lovejoy CO. The obstetric pelvis of A.L 288-1 (Lucy).  J Human Evolution 1986.;15:237-255

90 Lovejoy CO. The natural history of human gait and posture Part 1. Spine and pelvis. Gait and Posture. 2005;21:95-112

95 Abitbol, M M. Evolution of the lumbo-sacral angle. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 1987; 72(3): 361-,372

100 Been E, Barash A, Marom A, Kramer PA. Vertebral Bodies or Discs Which Contributes More to Human-like Lumbar Lordosis?  Clin Orthop Relat Res DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1153-7

 

OFF LOAD

124 Mohsen Makhsous, PhD, Fang Lin, Ronald W. Hendrix, MD,Matthew Hepler, Li-Qun Zhang,. Sitting with Adjustable Ischial and Back Supports: Biomechanical Changes. SPINE Volume 28, Number 11, pp 1113–1122

FTS

41 Gorman JD. The cause of Lumbar Back Pain; Eversley, England, Gorman, 1983. Ibid pp 95-10

126 Cyriax JH. Lumbago. Mechanism of dural pain. Lancet 1945: 427-429. & Cyriax JH .Textbook of Orthopaedic Medicine ,Vol1. 3d Ed. Bailliere Tindall, London,  1971. p362-5.

129 Andersson GBJ, Murphy RW, Nachemson AL et al.  The Influence of Backrest inclination and Lumbar Support on    Lumbar Lordosis.  1979;Spine 4, 1: 52-58.

137 Smith, FW. et al. The Response of the Nucleus Pulposus of the Lumbar Intervertebral Disc to Functionally Loaded Positions. 2007;Spine Volume 14. p 1508-1512

153 Reynolds et al, Spatial Geometry of the Human Pelvis, 1982 Memorandum Report Acc-119-81-5, Federal Aviation Administration, Civil Aeromedical Institute.

 

HOW OTHER PEOPLE SIT

113 Schlemper RJ, Kromhout D, Verbout AJ. The relationship between low back pain and postural habits in Dutch and Japanese female populations. 1987; Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 131: 2405-9

114 Dolan P, Adams MA, Hutton WC.  Commonly Adopted Postures and their Effect on the Lumbar Spine. Spine 1988; 13:2:197-201.

115 Fahrni WH, Truman GE Comparative radiological study of the spines of primitive population with North Americans and North Europeans. 1965;  J Bone Joint Surg (Br) 47B: 552-555,

116 Jonck LM, van Niekerk JM, A roentgenological study of the motion of the lumbar spine of the Bantu. 1961 ;South African J Lab Clin Med 2: 67-71

117 Bruggerman B. Kooke HJ, Guys R. Rugklachten Natuur en cultuur. II.Fysio 2000;1994;4:14-19

112  Wilke H.-J,  Neef P, Hinz B, Seidel H, Claes L.  Intradiscal pressure together with anthropometric data ± a data set for the validation of model. 2001 Clinical Biomechanics 16 Suppl; 1: 111-126

HOMO SEDENS

 119 Mandal AC. The Seated ManDafnia Publications. Denmark; 1985.

120 Keegan, J.J.  Alterations of the lumbar curve related to posture and seating, J Bone and Joint Surgery. 35A (3), 589-603.

121 Schoberth, H.  Correct Sitting at the Workplace. 1978 Frankfurt, Germany: University of Frankfurt, Ostsee Clinic

122 Akerblom B. Standing and sitting posture. With special reference to the construction of chairs. 1948; Nordiska Bokhande, Stockholmln

 

VAR CHAIRS

134 Nachemson A. Morris JM. In vivo measurements of intradiscal pressure. J Bone Joint Surg (Am) 1964;46:1077

32 Nachemson A. Towards a better understanding of low back pain: A review of the mechanics of the lumbar spine. Rheumat Rehabil 1975; 14:129-143.

33 Nachemson, A. L., Disc pressure measurements. 1981; Spine, 6:93-97

 34 Sato, K., Kikuchi, S., and Yonezawa, T. In vivo intradiscal pressure measurement in healthy individuals and in patients with ongoing back problems. 1999; Spine, 24(23):2468- 2474.

40 Lueder R. Anatomical, physiological and health Considerations relevant to the SwingSeat. 2002; Ergonomics Review.

LUCUBRATIONS

151 Patel A.  Am J Epidem;172:419, Quoted in New Scientist 29/6/2013:45

142 Corlett, E. N. & Bishop, R. P. (1976) A technique for measuring postural discomfort. Ergonomics, 9, 175-182.

153 Reynolds et al, Spatial Geometry of the Human Pelvis, 1982 Memorandum Report Acc-119-81-5, Federal Aviation Administration, Civil Aeromedical Institute.

146 Pheasant, S.T., “Anthropometry and the Design of Workspaces,” Eds. J.R. Wilson and E.N. Corlett, Evaluation of Human   Work: A Practical Ergonomics Methodology (Taylor & Francis, London, 1990), p.463.   458,459

147 Gordon, C.C., et al., Anthropometric Survey of U.S. Army Personnel: Summary Statistics Interim Report, 1988 pp.38, 73,132, 145.

148 Takeoka H., S. Yamada, and K. Nora, “Participatory Ergonomics for Seating—Need for User- Oriented Approach,” Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 35th Annual Meeting, 2. 1991; pp.939-943.

149 Mandal. AC., The Seated Man (Homo sedens). 1985. Dafnia Publications, p72

139 Waddell G et alOccupational Guidelines for the Management of Low back Pain at work. 2000 Faculty of Occupational Medicine of the Royal College of Physicians of London; 2000.

141 Jenkins A.(BT) ,Jukes J.(WESTRA). Laws J.(Ionovate).  The Impact of Improved Air Quality on Productivity and Health in the Workplace.2006:The Healthy Building Conference, Lisbon

140  Beggs C B et al. Air ionisation and colonisation/infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter species in an intensive care unit.  2005:Intensive Care Med (2005)DOI 10.1007/s00134-005-0002-8

SCHOOL CHAIRS

Oxford, H.W., “Anthropometric Data for Educational Chairs,” Ergonomics, 12:12 (1969), pp.140-161. An early example of an anthropometric study of schoolchildren in Australia in the late 1940s, which found that, even among children in the same grade, variation in body size was great enough to warrant the design of six different- sized chairs for that country’s elementary schools.

Linton, S. J.; Hellsing A. L.; Halme, T.; Akerstedt, K. 1994: The effects of ergonomically designed school furniture on pupils’ attitudes, symptoms and behaviour. Applied ergonomics;25(5):299­304.

ADJUSTMENTS

 

Reynolds et al, Spatial Geometry of the Human Pelvis, 1982 Memorandum Report Acc-119-81-5, Federal Aviation Administration, Civil Aeromedical Institute.

Pheasant, S.T., “Anthropometry and the Design of Workspaces,” Eds. J.R. Wilson and E.N. Corlett, Evaluation of Human   Work: A Practical Ergonomics Methodology (Taylor & Francis, London, 1990), p.463.   458,459

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Outlook Quarterly (Fall 1991), p.12.

Pheasant, p.458. Centon, M.J., et al., “Into the 21st Century,” The Futurist (July- August 1988), p.35.

Gordon, C.C., et al., 1988 Anthropometric Survey of U.S. Army Personnel: Summary Statistics Interim Report (United States Army Natick Research, Development, and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts, 1989), pp.38, 132, 145 73.   Office chairs are commonly designed to fit everyone between the 5th percentile of women and the 95th percentile of men—theoretically covering 95 percent of the entire population.

FROM RANI LEUDER    Ergonomics Review of The SwingChair, by Rani Lueder, CPE

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