Already described are the adverse effects of mid-upright sitting →
Derived from these findings are the Requirements for remediating these effects to optimise the biomechanics of prolonged sitting in the upright seated mode:-
2 existing systems are in use.
- Forward Tilted seat (FTS) ☛ The FTS→
- Back support of some sort. ☛ Lumbar v Iliac support→
- ‘Ischial off-load‘ A third system, combines these two. FTS & back support, by use of a convex seat-pan & pelvic support Ischial off-load→
- The ‘Supine reclined mode’ is to some extent a full solution except lacking the requirements of the 2M concept.
- ALTERNATIVE SYSTEMS
- Sit/Stand. The importance of keeping staff exercised is increasingly recognised. The negative consequences of constrained sitting has been described by a number of authorities (Adams and Hutton, 1983; Duncan and Ferguson, 1974; Edlund, There are advantages in keeping staff moving around and inter-reacting in certain types of office. Note that a sit/stand system can always incorporated into a 3M work chair station→ . For more detail See ☛Sit/Stand→
- Dynamic seating. Spinal movement aids muscle proprioception and IV Disc nutrition which has a physiological advantages over constrained seating and also may have a comforting effect if under the control of the user. For a fuller account see ☛Movement→ Also ☛ 2M exercise systems→
The 2TILT (2T, 3M) CONCEPT.
An optimal system that effectively fully remediates all the adverse effects that have been enumerated. Any chair can be compared to it for establishing it’s ergonomic efficiency. An essential tool for chair design. See ☛ The 2 TILT (2T) CONCEPT→
Requirements of the 2Tilt concept. See ☛ 2T Requirements→
The concept is derived from consideration of spinal anatomy, pathology, biomechanics and testing as already described. Each of the possible remediations (above) are found to be incorporated.
An office work-station is easily derived from the 2Tilt (now 2M) chair concept and now renamed the ‘TriModal’ (3M) concept as a sit/stand component is incorporated. See☛workstations→
And 4M OFFICE WORK-STATION when a ‘stand’ mode is incorporated/
“Sit/stand desks and pelvic support, semi reclined seating in the UK have yet to become part of the normal office landscape. When they do there will be several million office workers that will be grateful to be free from daily debilitating pain.” John Jukes, 2001.