WORK-CHAIRS, a new breed with a reclined mode.

From a wierd concept in 1998 to become disruptive in 2017?  As predicted  this is begining to emerge.  The ‘Deskless Chair’ derived from the ergonomic importance of a reclined work position, is morphing into the ‘Workstation’. This should reduce the incidence of LBP and other health issues.  It should also increase productivity.

We see a number of ‘work-station’ type models which include a reclined work mode and so are superior to the present (2016) upright conventional  models.  The models shown here are only semi-2T compliant and appear to ignore the science and are based on engineering.    They do not invite a great uptake, inspite of extensive PR.

  Okamura is a major Japanese company and produced the Atlas, a reclined work-chair that was ahead of the field in addressing the biomechanical factors that are necessary to okamura1avoid or limit  LBP.
“Looks familiar, Henry?” was the message from John Jukes about this chair.  Sure enough it showed the semi  reclined work position that I had been advocating since 1998 on the web.  .  It has been suggested that Okamura designers had seen my web page.  I doubt this as they had failed to apply the essential requirements need to make this a more user friendly, ergonomically optimised and cheape model.   Some comments might be helpful.

Screen Shot 2014-02-13 at 19.22.28

  • 1. Good.  Easily adjusted .  One of the requirements for the 2Tilt concept for users of differing height.
  • 2. Pelvic support should  be fixed at 200 mm.  (See BACKRESTS. Pelvic support v. Lumbar.→
  • 3. Also no need for this adjustment or for the depth of the seat.
  • 4. In the reclined mode the head-rest needs to be at about 6″ forward.
  • 5.  Good.  The reclined back-rest angle is 45°.   Better at 40° or less.
  • 6.  Good.  The backward extended legs give greater stability in the reclined mode.
  • Some adjustments should be avoided.  (See ADJUSTMENTS?→ )
  • The default upright mode is in the usual adverse mid-upright position.  (The upright seated posture.→ )
  •  I found the shift from the reclined mode to be awkward.
  • The 2T concept allows intermediate positions but these are unstable and can allow rocking exercise. (The unstable TRANSITIONAL MODE. It’s importance.↔ )
  • The mid upright mode could be mitigated by correctly placed iliac support.    (Pelvic support →).
  • The seat is convex and can allow the user to sit back and take advantage of the pelvic (‘iliac’) support. In this case the headrest has to be adjusted back from it’s position that is required when reclined.   (see •3 above) (See‘Ischial Off Load system’).
  • Screen Shot 2013-09-28 at 21.30.29The user can also sit on the front edge where the seat is tilting downward as with a FTS. Slipping could be a problem.
  • Fixed at a low level,  the seat allows the feet to rest on the floor in the reclined mode, as shown.  I am told that this causes problems for tall people who have tried it and an adjustable work-table may be required (no bad thing).


AltmarkNow, in 2015, a chair is proposed, the Altmark that has at least an upright and reclined work position.  However deficient in biomechanics (ergonomic) optimisation, with reservations, it is  potentially the best work-chair in the market at that time. (      Did they see my web-page for the 2T concept  or did they arrive at this independently?  I fear it was the latter and the chance of a simpler, more ergonomically optimised and more elegant model was missed.   It also has a ‘stand’ facility so in this respect is approaching the 4M workstation→.    It incorporates iliac support (at least, I hope iliac and not lumbar), which is required in the upright mode but might be excessive for the reclined mode.  The reclined configuration can be deeply adverse as can be found in some dental reclined chairs.   There appears Screen Shot 2015-11-06 at 18.21.33to be intermediate  position adjustment in the transitional mode, which at best, gives no biomechanic advantage and was probably intended to add comfort → .   Misled by ” that treacherous guide  which only turns up truthfully when the ergonomics are fully correct”.   If this mode becomes a part of the unstable intermediate mode it allows a faster transition and also gives the user the choice for dynamic motion and rehabilitation.  A win-win.   Scrapping a fixed intermediate mode reduces manufacturing costs.    Not having had an opportunity to see this chair, I cannot comment further on the ergonomics.   Expensive at $5,900,  it looks over engineered, awkward  and too clunky  for an ‘object of desire’.      ☛ Art, Elegance and Objects of Desire→    Did they arrive at this independently or did they see my web-page for the 2T concept? This has been in the public domain since 1998, later upgrade to the 3M (2T = 3M) & 4M   I fear it was the latter and the chance of a simpler, more ergonomically optimised and more elegant model was missed.  Also the aesthetics worried me.  I penned a hurried post on this subject.(ALTWORK & Art →)


Screen Shot 2016-06-24 at 12.34.17A good idea in that it achieves the 2 modes but what a terrible design!   Electrically operated.  With all possible bells and whistles It represents an almost opposite view to the 2T principle and it’s 4M workstation derivative.      Price: $5995

The CHOTTOScreen Shot 2017-05-20 at 11.14.27

This highly innovative chair was introduced to me by it’s designer,Thomas Stroman.   He wrote to me “I am an architect by training, but having experienced back surgery, my focus has been on ergonomic seating design for human-computer interaction.”   At first glance one might be excused for thinking that it looked as if it were self mobile with caterpillar tracks.  Perhaps an exciting concept for the future. What fun to go charging around the workspace and bumping one’s colleagues!  →

IfM 2013Now have a look at the 2013 Cambridge student project on the 2T CONCEPT.    The Cambridge trials showed the elegance, simplicity, cost effectiveness  and greatly enhanced ergonomics of th 2T concept showing a 4M version.

It excited much comment along the lines “Gee!  That’s cool.  I want it”.  The lack of ‘familiarity bias’ is typical with the millennial generation.  Go consider!

(Yes!   That’s John Gorman glowering in the background.  He was an engineering graduate and took the opportunity to visit his ‘Alma mater’).

And a sketch for a 2T model done for me by Aaron Chetwynd in about 2000, which deliberately resembles existing chairs so as to avoid familiarity bias.   compare it’s simplicity with the next chairs.→

GTRACING Gaming Office Chair

Screen Shot 2018-06-21 at 14.26.06The ‘Game Racing Chair the top end of this version ($166), with a reclined mode and an upright mode with potential pelvic support, is coming Screen Shot 2018-06-21 at 14.26.37close to the 2T design concept but lacks simplicity and optimised functionality.   The ‘Ergonomic Backrest’, 
is spoilt by being adjustable. Pillows are OK but just not good design.    Recliner Swivel Rocker Headrest sounds good. .


How do concepts evolve?

In 1903 Ford’s ‘Horseless Carriage’ had morphed into the Model T, capable of 20 horsepower In 1908.  This, at least, solved the “great horse manure crisis of 1894” when it was suggested that London’s streets would be clogged in 9 feet of horse manure in 50 years. It’s descendants are, in turn, being disrupted by ‘the driverless car’.   Disruptive technologies have to prove themselves first. Screen Shot 2018-06-11 at 21.07.24They do so by working on the same infrastructure as the incumbent leaders. Cars had to run on the same streets as horses. Dial-up internet connections in the late 1990s used the copper in the phone networks.     So, work-stations have to use existing office spaces before becoming universal. (Dan DenningPublisher, Southbank Investment Research ).

Peter Bessey wrote (30/6/2016) “It has taken time for the market to build, but there is definitely a movement toward other postures in the workplace. While some of that has derived from posture investigation and potential for beneficial effects on the user, other advances have emerged as a response to changing technology, new materials and a non-paper work method, as seen from the 60’s onward.   I suspect that a NASA effect is involved in some of this too. Numerous resources have been directed into space travel in recent decades and, for human travellers, that has mostly incorporated a reclined support system to encourage stress-reduction during high-load take-off and landing. So there has been a real effort to ensure that anthropomorphic needs are addressed properly when working from that position, to ensure equipment control systems can be operated successfully and without long-term harm.   There have been a number of attempts to create pod-like structures around reclined positions, to create controlled environments for audio enjoyment, meditation and relaxation. Perhaps those too, have influenced the current trend? But the main factor may well just simply be the instant communication and data access that today’s world now has available for sharing ideas.  Apart from that, it is likely that this trend has derived from the typical and gradual process in which increased knowledge, enlarged awareness and advance in technology brings. Stale markets, where things have remained much the same for decades and highly competitive markets where a cycle of fashion and small detail differences are all the consumer sees on offer, can drive the introduction of disruptive design ideas and encourage new entrants to challenge the existing status quo. Perhaps that is what we are beginning to see    Best regards  Peter”

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