Office work-stations are easily derived from the 2Tilt chair concept. Now renamed the ‘Quadri-Modal’  (4M)  concept as a sit/stand component is incorporated.   In a few decades a chair set before a desk, arranged in straight lines will be perceived as not only dated but hopelessly inefficient. There is an increasing interest in this direction.
 See Mindjet

“Desks are rather a thing of the past – Dickensian even. They evolved as tables with storage developed, alongside chairs. The whole combination seems a way of reducing/avoiding the need for floor sitting or squatting and a means to provide a convenient standing/sitting presentation of objects for working with at an ergonomically higher level.  They were there to support and present paper documents and the like. Hardware, since then, was largely developed to be used with/on them and has evolved through typewriters and similar devices to today’s electronics. Once that demand for physical documents has been reduced and even eliminated by ‘paperless’ office tech., then there is once more a blank page to draw on.”                             P.Bessey

The 2T concept is particularly relevant to the development of a desk-less office chair, described here as the ‘Quadri-Modal’  (4M)  concept.  So called as the concept requires 4 modes. 

  1. Reclined for prolonged use→
  2. Upright for some short tasks→
  3. Unstable intermediate mode→
  4. A standing mode→ Screen Shot 2016-05-18 at 16.09.49(Yes! That’s John Gorman glowering in the background.)
  5. See   ☛

For another idea for a deskless office see ☛  Co.Exist→

A deskless work chair from America.  It looks like a 2T chair in its general configuration and Screen Shot 2014-02-14 at 17.42.47transition from the reclined to an upright position seems easy and there is a minimum of adjustments (did they see my web-page which has been present since 1998?).  The mid ranges are probably not unstable so that the user can adopt this adverse position for a prolonged time.  Its base probably precludes it from being an office chair and it looks as if it could tip sideways.  It could be upgraded to a 2T chair without great difficulty.

The Altmark station

AltmarkConsidered further under ☛ WORKCHAIRS, a new breed with a reclined mode.     The webpage shows a fixed intermediate  position in both the reclined and semi upright modes.    At best it gives no biomechanic advantage and was probably intended to add comfort → .   Misled by ” that treacherous guide  which only turns up truthfully when the ergonomics are fully correct”.   If this mode becomes a part of the unstable intermediate mode it allows a faster transition and also gives the user the choice for dynamic motion and rehabilitation.  A win-win.   Scrapping a fixed intermediate mode reduces manufacturing costs.


Screen Shot 2016-06-24 at 12.34.17A good idea that I have been advocating since 1998, but a terrible design!   Electrically operated.  With all possible bells and whistles It represents an almost opposite view to the 2T principle and it’s 4M workstation derivative.   This  with an emphasis on anatomy and spinal biomechanics leads to lack of adjustments and simplicity.  Obviously a huge misplaced engineering enterprise without awareness of what was possible and desirable.  Price: $5995

Steelcase Cyps036Steelcase

The Brody Worklounge.  The illustrations suggest a system that approaches the 4M concept.     It lacks the simplicity of the 4M and does not offer a Sit/Stand capability.   The accompanying diagram shows good design, as far as it goes. It looks familiar!  It differs from the 2T/4M concept which provide some learning points which are more relevant to the 3M concept..

Screen Shot 2016-06-13 at 17.47.21

Stand mode

Freed from the constraint of a worktop desk, a stand mode can be easily designed.  This may help staff to move about and relate to others.

Ergo sit:standFor a 4M the display and small worktop has to be adjusted for height and swung out for the user standing beside the chair or with a colleague.

Shown is an Ergotron 97-581-019 Worksurface.



‘Sitting disease’

Compared to people who sit the least, those who spend most time in a chair have a 112 % higher risk of developing diabetes, a 147% higher risk of suffering “cardiovascular events” such as strokes and a 49%t increased risk of death from any cause.  ( Alarming but not entirely an effect of the bio-mechanics and not examined here.  However some posts are relevant.


With the advent of AI and robotics affices will be geared to the emotional and physiological requirements of the highly paid staff.   2 Tilt chairs and their 4M derivatives will be exactly relevant, becoming an office work-station.  A sleep hood can be incorporated into the design and avoid the neccesity for a dedicated ‘nap-room’.


Global blue chip companies are throwing their weight into VR development (hardware and software),  Mark Zuckerberg believes “this kind of immersive, augmented reality will become a part of daily life for billions of people”.

Eliott Myers from Roto VR, which is a small, innovative firm with designs on the related accessories market claims that “Roto enhances the seated experience with haptic feedback so dramatically you feel like you’re really there, in another world. Once you’ve tried Roto, VR feels empty without it.  With Roto, you can add our Table accessory, so you can drive around 360 degrees with a steering wheel (and pedals). Roto also has “rumble shakers” which can be affixed to the underside and back of the chair for added sensations. It’s like 4D on steroids. Actually we should call it 360D!”

Sounds exciting! and should be relevant to 2T or 4M design.  Another ‘blank page to draw on’.


Next Return to ☛ 2T in the office← 


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