Backache and GENERAL USERS


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Backache?  It does not matter how you sit or on what you sit.   What does matter to your spine is how long you sit.  

Potential breakdown of spinal components start  after 6 hours unless your chair is bio-mechanically friendly to them.     This work is intended to explore the bio-mechanical (ergonomic) factors that may determine spinal pathology and lead to backache (Low Back Pain. LBP).  And derive some answers.

Sitting on a log, a tree stump, an old dining room chair or a conventional office chair does not have a great effect on your back.   It is on prolonged sitting that the bio-mechanics (ergonomics) affect spinal components.   How long?  Research suggests six hours or more which is common in the present work environment.Screen Shot 2018-07-08 at 19.44.36


NAVIGATION through the website

For some readers this study was too large and diffuse.   It is now divided into subdivisions.   NAVIGATION. To use this work →    Or see the top menu↑

Specialists will prefer to jump directly to their page of interest using the Right menu→.

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Screen Shot 2016-03-18 at 08.41.28To remediation2T direction



Screen Shot 2016-03-18 at 08.41.28Specifically, for general users :- 

Knowledge is required  derived from scientific work on :-

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The effects of Upright sitting.   The results

Screen Shot 2018-06-24 at 16.01.23The evidence identifies the adverse factors which occur with conventional prolonged mid-upright sitting.   Described under   ☛ Biomechanics→.   It results in flexion of the lower lumbar joints, which can cause spinal pathology.   These include permanent stretching of the posterior spinal elements and a shift backwards of the IV disc contents (Smith F, 2007→).  towards pain sensitive structures that can account for backache & series spinal conditions.  The upright seated posture.

See ☛ ‘Why?’   Mandal’s Homo sedens


A simple illustration of the effect of sitting upright is shown here :-

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Partial solutions

The obvious, and perhaps only, solution was for prolonged work to be performed in a chair that has a stable, correctly supported, supine reclined mode. Shown here is the Okamura ‘Atlas’ chair.  ☛ Atlas→

Screen Shot 2013-09-29 at 14.29.22Other partial solutions include ☛ Pelvic support→,

 ☛forward tilted seat→,

& ☛Sit/Stand→.

The only full solution is :-

Screen Shot 2016-03-18 at 19.28.20The 2 TILT (3M)  chair CONCEPT.

This is the big story derived from examining the bio-mechanical evidence, identifying the factors which can result in spinal breakdown on upright sitting and finally devising a concept for office work-chair design that avoids these adverse factors. The conclusion was theoretical but was later validated and confirmed by a new technology ‘positional MRI’ (pMRI).  A fully compliant 2T chair is ergonomically optimised (and optimally comfortable).   Anything less should be unacceptable for prolonged use.

Screen Shot 2015-10-07 at 13.43.22The 2T concept addresses all the ergonomic factors  that  ensure a sitting position that is the least likely to perpetuate, or result in, backache and other spinal conditions. It also includes the necessary requirements to make this a user-friendly practical work-chair.  Comfort is also thereby maximised.   ☛A Full solution→

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 Perception & Reality.  Familiarity bias

Western people have sat in an upright chair since childhood resulting in Familiarity bias.   They have been indoctrinated that mid upright sitting is ergonomically ‘correct’.  Chair designers have ensured comfort.  Therefore it is not surprising that most people perceive this as correct and desirable.    It will take time to change this misconceived perception.  First chairs designed on bio-mechanically correct lines must be manufactured.  Their advantages need to be explained.  I have noticed that people who are liable to backache  immediately recognise  the advantages and are likely to be the first to create a demand.  The newer generation is already more open to fresh ideas and also take quickly to a 2T design..   Insurance is already begining to take an interest (personal communication).     HAS


Screen Shot 2018-07-08 at 19.52.47A digression….

☛ Ergonomics and office stress. →
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