Screen Shot 2018-07-08 at 16.30.31An account of the bio-mechanic (ergonomic) factors, associated with prolonged sitting,  accounting for mechanical spinal pathology
(Backache, LBP, IVDisc pathology, CTD) and options for their remediation.


For some readers this study was too large and diffuse.   It is now divided into subdivisions.

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Screen Shot 2016-03-18 at 08.41.28To remediation2T direction


This is indicated in the top menu↑.   All post are shown in the menu on the right→ .    

Specialists will prefer to jump directly to their page of interest using the Right menu→.

For an overview of contents…..

Screen Shot 2016-05-16 at 18.50.05See the SPECIALIST page →  This includes a large body of research and background, on spinal bio-mechanics.  It is subdivided into :-

Screen Shot 2016-05-17 at 15.59.14 Manufacturers can be reassured that feasibility indicates that existing components can be used , Screen Shot 2018-07-08 at 14.57.33avoiding the expense of retooling, while preserving their brand image.   Prospective manufacturers can be helped to leap ahead of the field,    New ideas can create both threats and opportunities , once both familiarity  and normalcy biases are overcome.  Creative disruption works.

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to architects

For New offices ‘Coolness’ is the word to  excite media interest for both the company and the Architect/Designer.   Most firms aspire to project this cutting edge image.    A 2T chair, or the derived 4M workstation, answers this exactly and in addition reduces LBP and increases productivity by lessened morbidity and stress. ( Also see  ☛ Ergonomics and office stress.→ )

To office managersOffice managers should consult this blog as a resource.   It allows an alternative view to the usual hype, often laughably misguided, from manufacturers,


To remediationBackache & chairs.   A number of systems are described.  Spinal bio-mechanics dictates that prolonged sitting should be performed in a reclined position with frequent change of posture.  For a full remediation  a number of requirements are essential.   To be effective these are detailed in the 2 Tilt (2T) concept.

Topics and some relevant subjects

Specialist will prefer to jump directly to their page of interest using the menus.

  • Spinal anatomy includes a number of detailed studies of the more relevant component parts and an account of the paleoanthropology which resulted in the vulnerability of the lumbo-sacral junction.  ☛ Spinal Anatomy→
  • Biomechanics in relation to sitting postures.   ☛ Spinal biomechanics→.
  • How did we arrive here? ☛ Paleo Anthropology →
  • In addition,The way we sit now, further explores present sitting including the comments (☛Why? Mandal explains…→), Gorman and others.  Comparisons are made with various existing chairs  (☛How do they measure up?→).
  • Also included are Adjustments, comfort, exercise and movement. The way things are going. Special needs, the desk less office chair, pods, school desks & chairs (See menu →).
  • The office environment (☛Office→), it’s relation to physiological and psycho-social stress, ergonomics and remediation, the deskless chair and desk/chair interface.

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