For DESIGNERS, Architects & Office Managers

An account of the bio-mechanic (ergonomic) factors, associated with prolonged sitting,  accounting for mechanical spinal pathology (Backache, LBP, IVDisc pathology, CTD) and options for their remediation.

  • This work is intended as a resource for the design of work chairs.  The SCIENCE).  It represents some essential reading  for designers of ergonomic chairs (→DESIGNERS).
  •  and manufacturers of retail office chairs (→MANUFACTURERS) if they wish to improve the ‘ergonomics’ of their models with overwhelming health selling points.  
  • Office managers should consult this blog as a resource (→For OFFICE MANAGERS).
  • It is also very relevant to Interior designers and architects involved with office design (→For ARCHITECTS. ‘Coolness’ is the word).
  • Not forgetting the ‘end user’ who has the ultimate benefit (→Backache and GENERAL USERS).


The evidence identified adverse effects which occur with conventional prolonged mid-upright sitting that required remediation.  

  • Axial compression (by gravity).
  • Flexion at the vulnerable spinal joints.
  • A combination of the above.
  • Screen Shot 2016-06-29 at 14.17.13A full remediation can only be achieved in a relaxed, reclined  position that avoids all the adverse effects of prolonged upright sitting.  This conclusion became validated  by independent work using pMRI scanning (Smith 2007).   This confirmed the 2Tilt (3M) concept. (Reclined mode→).

In practice a reclined mode for prolonged work demands:-

  1. A fully supportive reclined mode, for prolonged work.
  2. An upright mode for certain short tasks.
  3. An easy transition mode, preferably unstable for additional health benefits.

 Screen Shot 2015-12-16 at 16.13.28 Although originally considered outlandish, recently design is now moving in this direction.   (→The 2 TILT CONCEPT.). 

To remediationBackache & chairs.   A number of systems are described.  Spinal bio-mechanics dictates that prolonged sitting should be performed in a reclined position.  This involves a number of requirements.   To be effective these are detailed in the 2 Tilt (2T) concept.  Screen Shot 2015-12-16 at 14.03.18


Screen Shot 2016-03-18 at 19.28.20 This concept will inevitably and logically move into the mainstream of chair design.

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Screen Shot 2016-05-17 at 15.59.14For MANUFACTURERS of retail office chairs new ideas can create both threats and opportunities , once both familiarity  and normalcy biases are overcome.  Screen Shot 2016-01-11 at 17.23.07Creative disruption works.   Screen Shot 2013-10-23 at 14.05.05



Supporting and related posts are shown in each of the above categories.

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